Goa is India's smallest state , it is located on the west coast of india in the region known as Konkan . Goa was ruled by the Portuguese for 450 years till it was liberated from the portuguese to form a part of india on 19th december 1961.Goa has a long history of rulers dating back to the 3 rd century bc when it was the part of the mauryan empire .goa has been ruled by numerous rulers Silharas,Kadamdas,Chaukyans , kings of Deccan,kings of Vijaynagar,Adilshah of Bijapur and last but not least the Portuguese who were the most sucessful of them all .The Portuguese came in 1498 ans were the the first Europeans to set foot in India , they soon established a trading colony for the sole purpose of dealing with spices and cotton and later ended up ruling the state when the portuguese admiral alfonso de albuquere defeated the ruling Bijapur kings on the behalf of a local sovereign.
Goa encompasses an area of 3702 square kilometers.it is bounded by the state of Maharastra on the north and Karnatakaon the east and the south .The Arabian sea makes up the states west coast .Goa has a coast line of 101 kms which comprises of beautiful beaches .Its main rivets are the Mandovi ,the Zuari ,the Terekhol,Chapora and the Betul.The Mandovi and Zuari are the life lines of the state .Goa has one of the best natural habours in South Asia known as Mormugao.Goa being in the tropical zone has a warm and humid climate .Goa consists of 3 seasons namely the summer, rainy or the wet season and the cool season.
Goa is one of indias richest state with a GDP per capita of one and a half times that of the country .Tourism is Goa's primary industry followed by the fishing industry and the mining industry.Rice is the main agricultural crop followed by cashew and coconut .Panjim is Goa's administarative capital and the hub of the business industry , Panjim lies on the left side of the river Mandovi over looking Goa's legislative capital Porvorim .Konkani is Goa's primary spoken language ,English and Marathi is the language used for official literacy or educational purposes.Hindi , India's national language is also spoken as a second or third language.Rice and fish curry is the staple diet of the people of Goa .Coconut is widely used in the preparation of many dishes along with chilli,spices and vinegar.Some of Goa's most sought after dishes are prawn curry and rice, crab xec xec ,pork vindaloo,sorpotel,sannas and last but not the least the best dessert of the state bebinca.
Since Goa consist mainly of Hindus and Christians , Christmas ,Ganesh Chaturthi,Diwali,New Years Day,Shigmo and the Carnival are the most celebrated festivals in the state.Goans have a great love for music which can be seen widely in the state through the numerious dances ,bands festivals,concerts or dramatical plays or tiatrts as they are often called .Manddo is the traditional goan folkore music which originated in the ninetenth century is sung and danced on special occasions .Goa also has two world heritage sites the Basillica of Bom Jesus and a few designated Convents.The Basillica of Bom Jesus holds the mortal remains of Saint Francis Xavier regarded by many catholics as the patron saint of goa.The Velhos Conquistas regions are also known for its Indo Portuguese style and architecture in many parts of Goa.Mansions constructed in the Indo Portuguese style architecture still stand .Fontainhas in Panjim has been declared a cultural quater and are used as a living museum showcasing the life architecture and culture of Goa.
In the 3rd century BC Goa formed part of the Mauryan empire. Later it was ruled by the Satavahanas of Kolhapur and eventually passed to the Chalukyas of Badami from 580 to 750 AD. Goa fell to the Muslims for the first time in 1312, but they weren’t fans of the beach and eventually left in 1370 under the forceful persuasion of Harihara I of the Vijayanagar empire. During the next 100 years Goa’s harbours were important landing places for ships carrying Arabian horses for the Vijayanagar cavalry. Blessed by natural harbours and wide rivers, Goa was the ideal base for the sea-faring Portuguese, who arrived in 1510 aiming to control the spice route from the East. Jesuit missionaries led by St. Francis Xavier arrived in 1542. For a while, Portuguese control was limited to a small area around Old Goa, but by the middle of the 16th century it had expanded to include the provinces of Bardez and Salcete. The Marathas almost vanquished the Portuguese in the late 18th century, and there was a brief occupation by the British during the Napoleonic Wars in Europe. However, it was not until 1961.
Goa has a long and chequered history. Some identify it in the Mahabharata as Gomant, Where Vishnu, reincarnated as Parasurama, shot an arrow from the Western Ghats into the Arabian Sea and with the help of the god of the sea reclaimed the beautiful land of Gomant. Siva is also supposed to have stayed in Goa on a visit to bless seven great sages who had performed penance for seven million years. In the Puranas the small enclave of low lying land enclosed by the Ghats is referred to as Govapuri, Gove and Gomant. The ancient Hindu city of Goa was built as the southernmost point of the island. The jungle has taken over the virtually nothing survives.
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